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Indocyanine green videoangiography (IGV) raises important limitations when we use it in vascular pathology, especially in cases with arterialization of the venous system such as arteriovenous malformations and fistulae.
Our objective was to provide a simple procedure that overcomes the limitations of conventional IGV. We define IGV in negative (IGV-IN), so-called because, in its first phase, the vessel to analyze is clipped, and we report 3 cases of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae treated with this procedure.
In 2011, we applied IGV-IN to 3 patients at our center with Borden type III intracranial arteriovenous fistulae.
In all 3 cases, IGV-IN enabled both diagnosis and post-dural arteriovenous fistula exclusion control in 1 integrated procedure no longer than 1 minute, requiring only 1 visualization.
IGV-IN is an improvement over the conventional IGV method and is able to provide more information in a shorter period of time. It is an intuitive and highly visual procedure, and, more importantly, it is reversible. Studies with larger samples are necessary to determine whether IGV-IN can further reduce the need for postoperative digital subtraction angiography.